Penanganan Medulloblastoma – Kemoterapi

Sumber: www.abta.org

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. For children with medulloblastoma, chemotherapy is used to reduce the risk of tumor cells spreading through the spinal fluid. For adults, this benefit is not quite as clear since their tumors tend to regrow in the cerebellum. Because different drugs are effective during different phases of a cell’s life cycle, a combination of drug may be given. The combination increases the likelihood of more tumor cells being destroyed.

Chemotherapy is now a standard part of treatment for children with medulloblastoma. Most children are treated in clinical trials — organized Selanjutnya

Penanganan Medulloblastoma – Radiasi

Sumber: www.abta.org

Radiation

Following surgery, medulloblastoma is usually treated with radiation therapy. It is an important “next-step” because microscopic tumor cells can remain in the surrounding brain tissue even after surgery has successfully removed the entire visible tumor. Since these remaining cells can lead to tumor regrowth, the goal of radiation therapy is to reduce the number of left-over cells. Doctors consider several factors in planning radiation therapy: The age of the patient, the location of the tumor, the amount of remaining tumor, and any tumor spread. Since radiating the brain and central nervous system can be damaging to a Selanjutnya

Penanganan Medulloblastoma – Operasi

Treatment

If the tumor is determined to be a medulloblastoma, current treatment consists of surgically removing as much tumor as possible, followed by craniospinal (brain and spine) radiation and/or chemotherapy. Your doctor will suggest a treatment plan based on factors that indicate the risk of tumor recurrence — either “average-risk”

or “high-risk.” To determine risk, doctors look at the age of the patient; the amount of tumor remaining following surgery; and the amount of metastases, or tumor spread (also called M stage). Children are considered at “average-risk” of recurrence if they are diagnosed after age 3; if all, or nearly Selanjutnya

Diagnosa

Sumber: www.abta.org

Diagnosis

Obtaining a symptom history and performing a neurological examination will be your doctor’s first steps in making a diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), done both with and without a contrast dye, is then used to identify the presence of a tumor in the brain. The contrast dye is given intravenously (into the vein) to enhance the pictures. By concentrating in abnormal tissue, the dye makes a tumor appear much brighter than other areas. If a tumor suspected of being a medulloblastoma is identified, an MRI of the entire spine can be done to look for tumor in Selanjutnya

Tanda Tanda Medulloblastoma

Sumber: www.abta.org

Symptoms

The early “flu-like” signs of this tumor — lethargy, irritability and loss of appetite — are often so nonspecific that the disease first goes unnoticed. In infants, increased head size and irritability may be the first symptoms. Older children and adults may

experience headaches and vomiting upon awakening. Typically, the person feels better after vomiting and as the day goes on. As the pressure in the brain increases due to a growing tumor or blocked fluid passages, the headaches, vomiting and drowsiness may increase. Other symptoms depend on the nerves and brain structures affected by the tumor. Selanjutnya

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